Nonwovens Glossary

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Non-woven fabric

Nonwovens are broadly defined as sheet or web-like structures in which fibers or filaments (and through perforated films) are mechanically, thermally or chemically entangled. They are flat, porous sheets made directly from individual fibers or from molten plastic or plastic films. They are not made by weaving or knitting, nor do they require the conversion of fibers into yarn. 

Carding (non-woven)

Nonwovens made from carded webs bonded using a variety of techniques to provide fabric integrity.

composite material

Combining 2 or more materials with different properties that may have known interface qualities.

Dry laying (non-woven fabric)

A drylaid and bonded web with 1+ bonding technology designed to introduce fabric integrity.


Moisture tendencies involving water or its absorption.

Medical Grade and Nonwovens

Some of the qualities that all medical fabrics must possess include softness, cleanliness, purity, strength, absorbency, elasticity, and adaptability. Well, as it happens, nonwovens are well-suited to manufacture/design to provide these qualities, providing sterility, elasticity, water repellency, super absorbency, and a bacterial barrier. Medical grade non-woven fabrics can be used in bedding, medical devices, wound care, ostomy bags, surgical gowns, ice pads, anti-pollution products, etc. Carded, spunbond and meltblown nonwovens can be produced as FDA compliant polymers and tailored for medical use.


Geotextile nonwoven membranes are commonly used in construction projects. They can be used to separate the sub-base construction layer from the drainage system layer. This “barrier” acts as a filter, preventing fine sediment from the upper surface from seeping into the drainage system and clogging the works. These membranes also prevent subsurface soil migration, thereby improving overall structural integrity.

Spunlace non-woven fabric

Spunlace nonwovens are made by the impact of high pressure water jets on the surface of the fabric on a fast moving conveyor belt

Non-woven cotton

It must first be noted that cotton fibers left over from industrial processes were some of the earliest fiber adoptions used in nonwovens during a period when raw materials were limited and there was a push to use fiber waste for constructive and potentially profitable use (after World War II). Later, in order to improve the harvesting efficiency of cotton fibers, the short fibers (or linters) that remained on the seeds after ginning were put into “despinning” machines. The more elastic and longer “first cut” linters obtained from this process are the fibers used in the now more abundant variety of nonwoven products. All in all, non-woven cotton has played a vital role in the non-woven industry from the very beginning, and until today, the harvesting efficiency of cotton fiber is greatly improved.

Nonwoven polyester (fiber)

Manufactured fibers have a core component of a long-chain synthetic polymer consisting of at least 85% by weight terephthalic acid and a glycol ester.

Non-woven rayon (fiber)

  Fiber made from regenerated cellulose.

Spunbond nonwoven

Chemically bonded nonwovens are made by applying a binder (resin or latex) to the surface of the web


A scrim is a chemically bonded fiber, mesh fabric that is superior to many other fabrics because, on the one hand, its fibers have no woven crimp—and, moreover, its fibers have a more diverse range of attachment angles; compared to other fabrics , scrim can be manufactured faster and easier, it is a highly flexible, strong and flame retardant fabric. It can be used to reinforce many products including carpets, roofs, filters, air ducts, laminates, tape and many other things.

Thermal bonding nonwoven

Thermal bonding is the primary agent used in this type of nonwoven to bond the webs together. 

Meltblown non-woven fabric

Meltblown nonwovens are produced by extruding molten polymer fibers through a spinning mesh or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch


  One market that makes heavy use of nonwoven substrates is “coatings” in multiple industries, including manufacturing, automotive, sports, and more. Most of these materials are produced using needle punching. Two popular materials for coating substrates are polyester and polypropylene. This nonwoven technology proved particularly popular when used in police cars and taxis, as they proved superior to knitted products – and thus ended up being used in many manufactured cars. They are also used as pond liners and golf bags.


Nonwoven geotextile liners are made using a “narrow film” process, resulting in large sheets. Chemical or needle-punched bonded, plastic fiber entangled or heated, non-woven liners are manufactured due to their amazing drainage and filtration capabilities and are excellent choices for erosion control materials, pond liners, drainage fabrics and divider fabrics.


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